>Advanced Computing in Medicine

1.Advanced Computing in Medicine

1.1 Robotics and Computer-Integrated Surgery:

Computer Integrated Surgery focuses on computer-based techniques, systems, and applications exploiting quantitative information from medical images and sensors to assist clinicians in all phases of treatment, from diagnosis to preoperative planning, execution, and follow-up. It emphasizes the relationship between problem definition, computer-based technology, and clinical application and includes a number of guest lectures given by surgeons and other experts on requirements and opportunities in particular clinical areas.

Some universities are doing research in this area including Johns Hopkins University, MIT and CMU.

1.2 GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS:

We define biomedical informatics  as the scientific field that deals with biomedical information, data, and knowledge—their storage, retrieval, and opti- mal use for problem solving and decision making. It accordingly touches on all basic and applied fields in biomedical science and is closely tied to modern information technolo- gies, notably  in the areas of computing  and communication (biomedical computer  sci- ence). The emergence of biomedical  informatics  as a new discipline is due in large part to  rapid  advances  in  computing  and  communications  technology,  to  an  increasing awareness that  the knowledge base of biomedicine  is essentially unmanageable by tra- ditional paper-based methods, and to a growing conviction that the process of informed decision making is as important to modern  biomedicine as is the collection of facts on which clinical decisions or research plans are made.

Genomics:the study of the function and interactions of all of the genes in
the genome. Genomics aims to understand the structure of the genome,
including the mapping of genes and sequencing the DNA. Genomics examines
the molecular mechanisms and the interplay of genetic and environmental
factors in disease.

Proteomics:the characterization and quantification of proteins and protein
systems. Proteomics methods allows for the comparison of patterns of pro-
teins isolated from bodily fluids or cells, in normal and diseased subjects.

Metabolomics: the identification, measurement, and interpretation of the
complex time-related concentration, activity, and flux of endogenous metabolites
in cells, tissues, and other biosamples: blood, urine, and saliva. Metabolites
include small molecules that are the products and intermediates of metabolism,
as well as carbohydrates, peptides, and lipids.

Transcriptomics: The study of the transcriptome is the complete set of
RNA transcripts produced by the genome at any given moment; affords
information about the global mRNA expression of particular tissue-yielding
information about the transcriptional differences between two or more
disease states.

1.3 COMPUTATIONAL CELL BIOLOGY AND COMPLEXITY:

1.4 Digital Health Care

Clinical medicine is joining the digital age to help deliver health care with improved efficiency and convenience. New mobile computer kiosks are becoming standard features on hospital floors, becoming indispensable tools for caregivers. From the patient’s bedside, the attending physician has secured access to such pertinent patient information as high-resolution digital images, laboratory results, and medication history. Integration of monitoring devices offers realtime patient information easily accessible from any access point in the hospital and beyond. An accessible patient database may appear unremarkable; however,for the first time in history, real-time patient data can be collected, “mined,” and
analyzed at a global scale for drug discovery applications. Data mining is the process of using statistical techniques to extract potentially useful information from subtle relationships between data items to construct valuable predictive models. Through data-mining strategies, appropriate therapies and treatments can be recommended based upon the clinical outcomes of patients with similar
medical histories and conditions.

Telemedicine:


Telemedicine may represent the next evolutionary step for digital health care,the delivery of medicine over a distance. The penetration of the Internet offers tremendous opportunity for patients to receive real-time treatment and monitoring without leaving the comforts of home. Medical devices specifically designed to relay instantaneous patient information to their care providers may offer new markets of expansion for existing medical device makers. Already devices such as networked glucose readers and digital thermometers are connecting patients to their clinicians. As information technology continues to advance, patients will be given the opportunity to self-monitor their chronic conditions and acquire feed-
back from their care providers through online health consultation while enjoying the comfort and safety of being at home with their families and friends. Analysts estimate the US digital home health market generated $461 million in revenue in 2005 with the expectations that it will grow to a $2.1 billion market by 2010!

The aging population and shortage of doctors and nurses may drive this lofty expectation to its fruition.
The ultimate technology achievement of digital health care and telemedicine is remote surgery. As broadband data transfer becomes more efficient and robust, remote surgical procedures utilizing robotic surgical systems may become a reality. Robotic systems like Intuitive Surgical’s da Vinci Surgical System
may revolutionize surgical procedures, offering surgeons the ability to extend their scalpel to any  operating room in the world! The greatest obstacle to this technology is lag, or the delay of information transfer that is associated with networked systems. Once communication issues are solved, the skills and experience of the surgical elite can be applied across the globe and beyond; the applications are endless: outreach programs to third world countries, access to dangerous battlefield treatment centers, and perhaps locations that support our space exploration endeavors

โครงการการแพทย์ทางไกล (Telemedicine) เป็นการนำเอาความก้าวหน้าทางด้านการสื่อสารโทร คมนาคมมาประยุกต์ใช้กับงานทางด้านการแพทย์โดยการส่งสัญญาณผ่านสื่อซึ่งอาจจะเป็น สัญญาณดาวเทียมหรือใยแก้วนำแสงแล้วแต่กรณีควบคู่กันไปกับระบบเครือข่ายคอมพิวเตอร์โดย แพทย์ต้นทางและปลายทางสามารถติดต่อกันได้ด้วยภาพเคลื่อนไหวและเสียงทำให้สามารถแลก เปลี่ยนข้อมูลคนไข้ระหว่างกันและกันทั้งทางด้านภาพเช่นฟิล์มเอกซเรย์และสัญญาณเสียงจาก เครื่องมือแพทย์เช่นการเต้นของหัวใจคลื่นหัวใจ (ECG)พร้อมๆกันกับการแลกเปลี่ยนประสบการณ์ และการปรึกษาเสมือนกับคนไข้อยู่ในห้องเดียวกันนอกจากนี้การแพทย์ทางไกลยังนำมาใช้ในการ ประชุมปรึกษาหารือกันทางไกล (Video Conference) แพทย์ต้นทางแพทย์ปลายทางกับการศึกษา ต่อเนื่องทางไกล (Distance Learning) และการเชื่อมโยงเครือข่ายคอมพิวเตอร์ระหว่างส่วนกลาง และส่วนภูมิภาคอีกด้วย
ประเภทของการวินิจฉัยการแพทย์ทางไกล

Real time video link
Store-and-Forward telemedicine
Home healthcare and monitoring

1.5 Mobile Telemedicine

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